5. Reception of EHF EMR at the Cellular Level

  [Alipov, Belyaev, et al.] investigated the action of mm waves on the genome conformational state of E. coli cells and thymocytes of male rats of the Wistar line. The maximum effect was at a frequency of 41.303 GHz, with a resonant halfwidth band of 6 MHz (for the thymocytes); a frequency of 51.755 GHz and a halfwidth of 23 MHz and 3.3 MHz when the power flux density was 10-7 W/cm2 and 10-18 W/cm2, respectively (for E. coli), with a time of irradiation of 10 minutes. It was shown in both cases that there are commonalities in the reactions of live cells to mm waves: resonant echo, sensitivity of cells to super-low intensity EMF, and evidence of rules of selection by helicity. It was established that the quality of resonances increases (reduction of the halfwidth of the resonant line) as the intensity of mm waves is reduced.

  A comparison of the effects of EHF EMR in the near (induction) field and the far field of an antenna on the activity of immune system cells was made in the research of [Gapeev, Safronova, Chemeris and Fesenko]. The studies were done using peritoneal-extracted neutrophils from mice of the SPF category (free of pathogenic microorganisms). One of the main complications in conducting experiments on cells is the high level of absorption of EHF EMR by aqueous media [Novskova and Gayduk]. The difficulty can lead to non-uniform results and poor repeatability. We will introduce detailed descriptions of the experimental conditions in which the researchers tried to allow for the majority of complicating factors.

  Irradiation of the neutrophils was done from beneath the bottom of plastic containers. The thickness of the bottom of the containers was 0.2-0.3 mm. When the neutrophils were placed in the container, they adhered to the bottom and after a few minutes formed a monolayer with a thickness of 0.1 mm, with the total height of the solution inside the container being 2 mm. Calculation of the absorbed energy flux density (AEFD) at distance x from the radiating face of the slotted radiator was done according to the formula
P = Po/(1 + x/a)2, where a = 98 mm, Po = 3.76 mW/cm2 when maximum power at the exit of the generator was about 58 mW. Taking into consideration that the depth of the skin layer for EHF EMR is about 0.78-0.23 mm over a range of frequencies of 30-300 GHz, and after estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) in a layer of medium with a depth of about 0.1-0.2 mm, they obtained the AEFD value corresponding to absorption of radiation by the layer of solution containing the cells. In the near field region of the slotted radiator, at distances of 10-100 mm from its face, the SAR was estimated with the aid of a microthermocouple by the rate of temperature increase in the experimental container filled with the physiological solution. The AEFD in the near field was calculated proportionally to the SAR, taking into account the area of the bottom of the container and the mass of the solution.

  Most frequently, irradiation of biological objects in the EHF band is done in the near field of the source at distances of R<2D2/_ from the radiating face of the antennas. The non-uniformity of the EMF in the near field, however, may be one of the causes of artifacts. In the plane of the object there may exist a multi-modal interferential pattern of distribution of SAR, which determines the unevenness of absorption of EHF EMR energy by the object [Khizhnyak, Ziskin]. It has been shown by thermographic methods that the slotted radiator guarantees (in contrast to horn or dielectric antennas) distribution of the SAR in the plane of the phantom without local spots of overheating throughout the entire range of frequencies used (37.5-53.5 GHz). Only one spot of overheating was detected with an elliptical form, the area of which grew in direct proportion to the square of the distance from the face of the radiator. In this way, it was shown that the slotted radiator has good directionality, guarantees wide-band coordination of the radiation with the irradiated object over the entire range of frequencies used, and uniform distribution of SAR in the plane of the object both in the near field and the far field of the antenna, which, as we think, allows this radiating system to be used for irradiation of biological objects without artifacts in either the near or far field of the radiator. Considering the dimensions of the zone necessary for uniform irradiation of the biological object being studied and optimal AEFD, the plane of the object was positioned at a fixed distance from the face of the radiator: 65 mm in the near field or 400 mm in the far field of the antenna. In this situation, the AEFD in the near field was an even 240 _W/cm2, and in the far field, about 100 _W/cm2.

  Methodologically it would be more correct to irradiate biological objects in the far field of the radiators, where conditions of irradiation are more precisely defined: 1) the wavefront is formed and there is a flat transverse wave; 2) the E and H vectors are orthogonal to each other and orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the wave (in contrast to the near field, the far field has only a travelling wave); 3) the components of the E and H vectors in the far field are inversely proportional to the first power of the distance from the antenna, and their relationship to each other is constant, while in the near field the energy of the electric field predominates; 4) in the far field the coordination of the radiation with the load is determined basically by parameters of the load itself, in contrast to the near field, where the antenna has a strong influence.

  At a carrying frequency of 41.95 GHz, maximal inhibition of the synergetic reaction was discovered to be about 25%, differing reliably from the effect of EHF EMR for other carrying frequencies. The AEFD in this series of experiments was approximately 50 _W/cm2. The size of the effect depended weakly on the AEFD, and when the AEFD was between 20 and 150 _W/cm2, it averaged 24%. Based on the experimental data, it can be proposed that EHF EMR affects the calcium-dependent systems of intracellular signalling. The effect may be connected with changes in [Ca++] or affinity of proteins, including proteinkinase C, for calcium ions[Safronova].

  [Alovskaya, Gabdulkhakova, et al.] studied the influence of EHF EMR on cells of the immune system. It is known from the literature [Arzumanov, Betskiy, Devyatkov, Lebedeva, et al.] that the action of EHF EMR leads to modulation of immune reactions in humans and animals. From the position of the information theory of interaction of low-intensity EHF EMR with biological systems [Devyatkov, Golant and Betskiy], there is no substantial influence of low-intensity EHF EMR on a normally functioning cell, but if the functioning of the cell is disturbed, even weak external influences can change its metabolic profile. [Geletyuk, Kazachenko, Chemeris and Fesenko; and Safronova, Gapeev, et al..] considered that for the effect of EHF EMR there may correspond a physiological status of the cell. It is possible that the immunomodulating effect of EHF EMR during illnesses is directed to those specific cells with changed functional status. Neutrophils provide the swiftest reactions of the immune system to harmful influences. In the body, neutrophils may be in resting, primed or activated states. Neutrophils in the activated state carry out their physiological function, directed to protecting the body from harmful factors. Primed neutrophils are characterized by metabolic restructuring taking place in the cell, but the functional activity of the cell does not change until a subsequent activating stimulus enhances its responsiveness many-fold. Authors [Alovskaya, Gabdulkhakova, et al.] showed that the reaction of neutrophils to the effects of EHF EMR with given parameters (frequency and power) depends on their functional status. The evaluated the functional activity of neutrophils according to their production of active forms of oxygen (AFO) by the chemiluminescence (CL) analysis method. The level of [Ca++] was measured with the help of a fluorescent probe. For irradiation of the neutrophils, a broadband slotted radiator was connected to a high-frequency signal generator. The distance from the radiator to the object was set at a uniform 400 mm, which corresponded to the far field of the antenna used, as described above. The cells were irradiated in a mode of constant generation at a frequency of 41.95 GHz, with the absorbed energy flux density in the far field from the antenna being 150 _W/cm2. Irradiation was accomplished at room temperature of 19-22°C over the course of 20 minutes. Two samples were irradiated at a time: 1) resting and primed or activated cells; 2) cells in the presence of priming or activating agents, and the same with the addition of a blocker. For each sample, consisting of 3-4 containers, there was a corresponding control of non-irradiated cells. After completion of the irradiation, the initial level of CL was recorded, and then activating agent was added to each container and recording of CL continued for the necessary time. The reaction of the cells in different conditions to EHF EMR was as follows.
1) After irradiation of resting cells with EHF EMR, their reaction to stimulating agents of various natures remained unchanged. The authors of another study [Rojavin, Tsygankov, and Ziskin] reported that certain functional indicators of immune cells extracted from mice with normal immunity irradiated with EHF EMR did not differ from the controls. It is possible that this is a common property of biological systems in interaction with low-intensity radiation. 2) EHF EMR potentiates the activity of primed neutrophils. Priming was done 20 minutes before activation. The cells were irradiated with EHF EMR in a mode of continuous generation at a frequency of 41.95 GHz in the far field of the antenna with absorbed energy flux density of 150 _W/cm2 over a course of 20 minutes at room temperature. Priming the cells prepares them to make a stronger reaction upon subsequent activation. The result of irradiating the primed neutrophils was a consistent increase in production of AFO in comparison to non-irradiated cells. 3) Addition of a calcium ionophore to the incubated soluyion led to an increased level of CL and [Ca++], which determined the initial level of activation of the cells. It is probable that the level of activation of Ca++-dependent enzymes prior to irradiation determines the metabolic changes of the neutrophils provoked by the action of EHF EMR. Inhibition of phospholipase may modify the effect of EHF EMR on neutrophils.
  The experimental data from this research show that the functional status determines the effect of exposure to EMR EHF on cells, strengthening, weakening or not changing their response to an activating agent. In all probability, the interaction of EMR with a cell occurs on the level of activated enzyme systems. The processes of priming and activation of neutrophils may have common paths. The authors think that key elements in priming and activation of neutrophils are a system of Ca++-signaling, acting via serine/threonine kinases, and a system of tyrosine kinase signaling. It is possible that the metabolic changes provoked by EHF EMR in primed and activated neutrophils may be determined by the level of phosphorylation of certain enzymes. We note that the use in these experiments of a power of irradiation ten times lower than the corresponding thermal norms (2-3 mW/cm2) led to significant biological effects.

6. Experiments on Animals

  We will review the effects of EHF EMR on microorganisms. Experiments conducted by [Rudenko, Kolbun and Tolkach (1989, Kiev)] showed high sensitivity of bacteria to millimeter radiation at extremely low power levels. It was established that under the influence of EMR in the millimeter band the adhesive activity of microorganisms decreases significantly, regardless of their species.

  We also note the effect of EHF EMR on microorganisms of different species [Rozhavin, Sologub, Mikityuk.; Sologub; and Tishchuk and Yakunov]. [Balibalova, Bozhanova, Golant and Rebrova] proposed a relatively simple method (synchronized cell cultures) of registering a sharply resonant response of living organisms to EHF, with enough accuracy and reproducibility. Another advantage is that it enables the resonance curve forms to be studied.

  [Kryukov, Subbotina and Yashin] investigated the influence of EHF EMR (34.52 GHz, EFD 120 mW/cm2) on micronucleus induction in cells. Toads (Bufo viridis) were placed in water and irradiated for a period of 3-24 hours. After that, peripheral blood specimens were prepared. Considering that the animals were in water during the irradiation, the power used should not be considered high. A statistically significant effect of EHF EMR on the frequency of formation of micronuclei was demonstrated.

  [Subbotina and Yashin] researched the direct bioinformational effect of EHF EMR on exposed organs by studying the dynamics of morphological change in rat liver tissue. Exposure was at a frequency of 73 GHz and EFD of 0.2-0.4 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. It was shown that characteristic morphological changes occurred only during irradiation of the entire animal. These are reflected in:
1) progressive strengthening of microcirculation with compensatory outflow of blood;
2) activation of processes on the level of the cell genome and stimulation of processes of regeneration;
3) increased resistance of hepatic cells to harmful factors;
4) suppression of intra-hepatic biliary hypertension under conditions of ligation of the bile flow (common bile duct).
  Irradiation of surgically exposed livers of rats was conducted with EMR of 14.3 GHz frequency and 0.3 mW/cm2 power [Subbotina, Yashin and Yashin]. The effects of direct negative influence of low-intensity EHF EMR were observed on the living organism. It was shown that the destructive effect is connected with disturbance of the trans-membrane gradient of hydrogen ions in cellular mitochondria. This was characteristic of frequencies of SHF radiation which have the most destructive effects.

  In the research of [Tomashevskaya and Dumanskiy], 160 rats were irradiated in groups with EFD of 140, 100 or 60 _W/cm2 for twelve hours a day for four months. Observations were made on the 30th, 60th and 120th day of exposure. Changes were observed in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, which manifested as increased urea and residual nitrogen content in the blood serum, lower level of glycogen in the liver, and disturbance of a number of enzymatic systems--increased activity of ceruloplasmin and reduced iron saturation of transferin in blood serum, and reduced activity of cholinesterase in blood, and succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in mitochondria. These changes were cumulative.

  In the research of [Soldatchenkov, Bitkin, Tomashevskaya, et al.], two-month-old rats were irradiated with EMR of 59 GHz frequency and EFD of 1 mW/cm2 every day during early (1st to 6th day) and late (6th to 16th day) terms of gestation. In the offspring of the irradiated rats, changes were noted in motor activity, conditioned-reflex activity and latent period of reaction.

  [Khramov and Zubin] irradiated 102 mouse embryos at stages from single-cell to 16-cell stages with an EMF of 58-78 GHz and EFD of 1-5 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. Beginning from the two-cell stage, modulating effects of EHF EMR were observed. From this moment, transcription of the embryo's own genome is switched on, and an external EMF can affect its functioning.

  The reproductive functions of experimental animals was studied under the influence of millimeter wave EMR: EFD of 60, 25 of 10 _W/cm2, irradiation for four months [Nikitina and Andrienko]. Under EFD of 60 _W/cm2, disturbance of female cycles; reduction in fertility, number and weight of offspring; increase in postnatal deaths of the rat pups by a factor of 2.5; and dystrophic changes in the reproductive organs of the animals were noted. The presence of tangible biological effects was established experimentally for EMR with wavelength of 2.5 mm, and it is also proposed that EMR with wavelengths of 1.7, 0.9 and 0.77 mm may be therapeutic [Volchenko, Kolbun, Lobarev].

  According to [Nefedov, Protopopov, Sementsov and Yashin], there is a basis to assert that the bioinformational significance of EMR should increase as frequency increases, because
a) as frequency increases, the level of hindrance of technogenic and natural (cosmic) sources decreases;
b) as can be inferred from analysis of processes of historical biocenosis, the most bioinformational, natural frequencies established over the course of biogeochemical eons in living organisms are the frequencies in the ultraviolet, infrared and short-wave parts of the EHF range.
  Authors [Afromeev, Zagural'skiy et al.], attempted to create a compact, high-coherency EHF EMR generator, workng in the 90-160 GHz range in accordance with the hypothesis discussed in the work of [Nefedov, Protopopov, Sementsov and Yashin]. Appraisal of the EHF-therapy device through experimental research--in treating extensive artificially induced gastric ulcers in dogs, both primary and secondary--confirmed its high effectiveness. Under clinical conditions, the device was appraised using a frequency of 94 GHz for treatment of bronchial asthma patients, where use of devices with traditional radiation frequencies was not effective enough.

  Isolated cells damaged by ionizing radiation [Bundyuk, Kuz'menko, Ryabchenko and Litvinov] were irradiated with EMR at frequencies of 54-76 GHz and PFD of 10-14-10-16 W/cm2 for seven minutes. The effect of mm waves on the growth of implanted tumors (carcinomas) in mice and rats was studied. The PFD was 3 mW/cm2, at frequencies of 35.9-55.1 GHz. They were irradiated for ten days, 3-7 minutes per day, via acupuncture points. The effect of mm waves (five minutes per day for five days, 54-76 GHz) on cellular and humoral immunity was studied in mice exposed to ionizing radiation. These experiments showed that mm waves at non-thermal intensities act to normalize the growth of cells damaged by ionizing radiation, and in their action on biologically active zones in animals they have an immunomodulating effect. The therapeutic effect increases as the power of the EMR is reduced to 10-14 W/cm2.

  Rats of the Wistar line were irradiated for 15 minutes with EHF EMR of 37 GHz frequency, 0.3 mW/cm2 PFD and amplitude modulation at frequencies of 1-10 Hz, with subsequent morphological study of the cellular composition of the red bone marrow [Kazakova, Svetlova, Subbotina and Yashin]. The controls were irradiated with unmodulated EHF EMR. The results obtained give evidence that a single exposure to low-intensity EHF EMR without modulation, and with modulation at low frequencies of 5-10 Hz, induce opposite effects in red bone marrow (RBM). In the former case, we have pronounced stimulation of proliferative processes in the RBM, which are reversible. In the latter case--progressive depression of the process of blood production, right down to the formation of hypo- and aplastic conditions in the RBM on the sixth day of observation. This process is obviously of a pronounced negative nature for the vital activities of the organism, is irreversible, and has a tendency to progress. The studied modes of action of EHF EMR exert a steady harmful effect on RBM functions and are a pathogenic physical factor.

  The following tendency has been grasped: modulation with frequencies of 0.01 to 4-5 Hz and 16-100 Hz exert a positive effect on the functioning of the organism; these correspond to basic biorhythm frequencies. AM frequencies of 5-16 Hz exert a direct damaging effect, and they are not resonant for the organism. It is possible that infra-low frequencies are associated with the acoustic background of earthquakes, tsunamis, thunderstorms, tornadoes and other cataclysms. There are indications that FM 6-16 is the range of maximal sensitivity of marrow tissue.

  On the basis of a large volume of research done in the USSR from the 60s to 1990, [Devyatkov, Betskiy, 1981; Devyatkov, Gel'vich, 1981; Devyatkov, Golant, 1982; Devyatkov, Golant, Rebrova, 1982; Devyatkov, Didenko, 1983; Gordon, 1969; Balakireva, 1982; Zalyubovskaya and Kiselev, Electron..., 1975; Study of Mechanisms of Non-thermal Effects..., 1983; Ismailov, 1987; Millimeter Waves..., 1989; Non-thermal Effects..., 1981; Use of mm Radiation..., 1985; Use of mm Radiation..., 1986; Fundamental..., 1989; Effects of Non-thermal Influence, 1983; Kiselev; Zalyubovskaya, 1977; Golant, 1986] the author of a detailed review [V.D. Iskin] formulated the following conclusions about the biological effects of millimeter waves (BEF MMW):
1) They do not depend on the intensity of EMR, starting from threshold to noticeable heating of tissue.
2) There exist narrow "resonance" bands of EMR frequencies in which BEF are observed.
3) The relative width of these frequency bands is 0.01-1%.
4) Resonance frequencies stable for the object are found during a definite phase of development.
5) Irreversible BEF occur only during prolonged or cyclical exposure.
6) During amplitudinal or frequency modulation of MMW, bioeffects are maintained or strengthened as the power of exposure is significantly reduced.
7) The body "remembers" the effect of EMR for a relatively long time.
8) In some cases, EMR influences sensitivity to other factors (chemical, ionizing radiation, etc.), and the effects may persist through time.
9) Local irradiation of the body at different frequencies may exert similar BEF.
10) Positive effects of MMW occur within the limits of possible normal functioning of the body.

  The upper energetic threshold for non-thermal BEF was put at 10 mW/cm2 (which does not cause heating of biological substances of more than 0.1 K). Iskin noted that proposed lower thresholds of 1 mW/cm2 for animals and 10 _W/cm2 for simple organisms were compromises, and that many researchers had found effects far below these limits. For example, in humans, in 1987 [Kolbun and Sit'ko] registered sensitivity to 10-3-10-8 W/cm2. The duration of exposure was from 1, 3 or 5 minutes to 1, 2 or 12 hours (effective time of irradiation). There is evidence of occurrence of BEF seconds after the beginning of irradiation. The frequency-dependency of BEF of millimeter waves qualifies as a new phenomenon (in comparison with centimeter and decimeter waves) and is cause for the most careful research and keen discussion. The relative width of the band is 10-3 or more. The stability of response to a specific frequency is up to seven months [Andreev, Beliy and Sit'ko].

A FEW BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS (according to the review by [Iskin])
Table 1
Biological Object
EMR Wave-length (mm)
6.52; 7.31
Changes in outflow of free Hb.
Cell culture
Changes in morphology of cells,increased rate of division. Kidney cells 6.5; 5-8 Changes in morphology, destruction of membranes; degeneration of protoplasm,
decreased survival.
4.0; 4.6; 4.8; 5.0; 5.2; 5.45
Increased rate of aggregation.
5.8; 6.5; 7.1
Increased synthesis of colicin.
Changes in enzymatic activity, growth rate;
lethal effect.
7.095; 7.1; 7.12; 7.15
Stronger biochemical activity and growth rate.

Lethal effect.
Sacch. cerevisia (Yeast)
8.2; 7.18

6.8-7.2; 6.05; 6.035
Stimulation of growth, biochemical activity and biosynthesis.
Changes in growth cycles and morphology.
Blue-green algae
8.3; 6.66; 7.1; 7.89; 8.34
Stimulation of growth, changes in rate of photosynthesis.
Fruit flies
5.7-8; 7.2; 6.5; 7.5
Mutagenicity, sterilization of females, changes in fertility and viability
Chicken embryos
6.5; 7.15
Reduced weight, changes in incubation period by 2-3 days.
6.5; 5.6
Effect on physiological processes and metabolism.
3.8-5.7; 10.7-11.0;
Accelerated regeneration of biological tissues, generalized reactions of the body: excitement or somnolence, changes in arterial pressure and pulse, reliable sensory reactions.

  Of importance for the appearance and detection of BEF are the initial conditions of the biological medium: composition of the nutritional solution, concentration of cells in suspension, volume and surface area of irradiation, age and physiological condition, temperature during culture and processing, synchronization [Devyatkov, Golant and Tager, 1983], phase of cellular cycle, etc.

7. HF EMR in Medicine

  In connection with the intensive development of radiotechnical media--television, radio-relay, radar--our modern environment is saturated with electromagnetic fields of various frequency bands. The effect of EHF EMR on the functioning of the human body was the subject of discussion of the 1st All-USSR Symposium held 10-13 May 1989 in Kiev, with international participation. A fairly complete bibliography of research to the mid 90s is given in the book [Millimeter Waves in Biology and Medicine (bibliography)], and also in the book [Millimeter Waves in Medicine: Collection of Articles, Vol. 1 and 2, editors N.D. Devyatkov and O.V. Betskiy]. EHF EMR should also be viewed as one of the factors in the external environment affecting the homeostasis of the body and promoting its functional correction with subsequent production of a new stable condition in the given environment. The use--in a sanctioned version--of the technical EHF EMR range with the goal of correcting the functions of the human body has led in the past ten years to creation of a new branch of medicine: EHF therapy, or MRT--microwave resonance therapy [Sit'ko and Mkrtchyan; Grubnik, Sit'ko and Shalimov; Bundyuk, Kuz'menko and Ponezha]. For example, in the research of Mkrtchyan, et al., a wide range of clinical material is presented on treatment of gastritis, duodenal ulcers, cerebral palsy in children, diabetes, angioneuropathy, chronic alcoholism and drug addiction by the method of microwave resonance therapy, and the immunomodulating effects of MRT are examined. They are also examined in works presented at the symposium [Millimeter waves..., 1997].

  It is essential to take into account the radiophysical parameters of the SHF and EHF EMR bands in evaluating the physiological condition of a human during sanctioned and unsanctioned exposure. To the latter belong a wide range of effects, including effects of EMR from industrial and residential facilities, and the effects on human health of radiation from radar stations.

  It is already a proven fact that the therapeutic effectiveness of EHF therapy is determined to the greatest extent by the frequency of EMR, spectral characteristics (modulation), level of irradiating power, method of introducing EMR to the human body, directionality and homogeneity of the EMF in the irradiated organ, duration of the therapeutic procedure and entire cycle of treatment, and combination of EHF therapy with medicinal procedures [Afromeev and Nagorniy]. Among the new trends one may note the research of [Beliy, Khokhlov, Tsikora and Yakunov], devoted to digital noise. Digital noise is an artificially synthesized signal which has the properties of a monochromatic and wide-band signal. Generators of digital noise in the millimeter range are promising sources of EMR for resonance effects on living systems. Traditional methods of medical monitoring of the physiological condition of the human body are biochemical blood analysis, electroencephalography, roentgenography, fluoroscopy, ultrasound diagnostics, computer and NMR tomography, etc. At the same time, new, more modern methods of monitoring and research are being intensively developed. Frequently the incentive for seeking new methods is the effort toward more effective evaluation of the most delicate processes of homeostasis.

  The correlation between disturbances in body functions and pathology of its separate component cells, in particular, blood cells, is an established fact if one is talking about general illness. Any disease of the body changes the flow of metabolic processes in cells initiating by this means the processes of functional reorganization of cells and variations in the spectra of radiation of the cells' own EMR [Sit'ko and Yanenko; Skripnik, Peregudov and Yanenko].

  For example, in the noise spectrum characterizing the total EMF of the cells' own radiation, the presence of pathology presents itself with a change in the spectrum at some frequencies. The connection between intensity of radiation from the human body and the condition of the person's health and nutrition was studied. In addition to the radiation from surface zones and points on a person's skin, the electromagnetic activity of the bones of living organisms was investigated. It was shown that bones fill the role of generators of EHF oscillation within the organism, in contrast to the skin, which actively absorbs low-intensity signals in the mm range [Sit'ko, Skripnik and Yanenko].

  Significant possibilities have been discovered in the use of specific properties of biologically active points (BAPs) in human skin [and reflexogenic zones and regions]. It should not be doubted that these points and zones are sources of radiofrequency radiation in the super-low f<1 Hz and low frequency f<2 kHz ranges, and also in the SHF and EHF ranges. The low frequency radiation ranges are dependent upon the general physiological rhythms of the body, and the high-frequency ranges, the EMF of the body's own cells.

  At the same time, these point, zones and regions in electrophysical treatment are non-linear systems, but this means that when electromagnetic waves (EMW) are applied to a BAP or a reflexogenic zone, there occurs a process of interaction of the EMW with the EMR of the point, zone or region itself. As follows from the laws of radiophysics, the result of similar interaction is modulation of the incident EMW in the radiating frequency of the BAP. Separation of this frequency from the spectrum of modulated reflected waves and its analysis (amplitude-frequency) enable one to obtain information about the condition of the body and evaluate its response to external influences on the body, in particular, physical fields.

  A number of practical methods are known for diagnosing diseases of the body according to the condition of the BAPs; the majority of them are based on measuring electrical conductivity of the skin in the vicinity of the points (or meridians) [Zablotskiy and Spitkovskiy]. According to various data, the bioelectric potential of the surface of human skin reaches 180-200 mV. At inactive points it is equal to 2-70 mV, while at BAPs it is greater than 120 mV. It is significant that when pathology exists in the human body, the electrical potential of the skin is single-valued and lower than the indicated values. A high correlation has been noted between the magnitude of the bioelectric potential of the skin, especially at BAPs, and certain diseases [Ivanchenko and Andreev; and Ivanchenko and Gridina].

  The effect of signals with high, uncontrolled levels of amplitude or frequency-modulated noise and with indeterminate values of harmonics of the basic frequency can either give a zero effect or have a distorting effect on the body. In other words, either the strength or the direction of the effect may be changed.

  The conclusion here is as follows: the use of such delicate therapeutic procedures based on poorly understood mechanisms of interaction of physical fields with living substance, firstly, does not tolerate dilettantism, and secondly, requires implementation of a governmental program of development, introduction and utilization of apparatuses meeting basic safety requirements.

  In particular, an effective method of objective selection of therapeutic frequencies for each individual patient is the introduction of feedback coupling in the frequency and amplitude of the cardiorhythm [Mironov and Nikitin]. It is even more effective to include among the equipment an electron-optical plethysmograph. Nonetheless, this is the essence of interim solutions, requiring further perfection in objectivization of the therapeutic procedure and diagnosis of thepatient by preferably non-invasive methods.

  The natural channels for the introduction of EHF EMR into the body are the reflexogenic zones, therefore research on their radiating (and receiving) properties is an important step in the integral solution to the task of EHF therapy, correction and monitoring. In this regard, biologically active points can be seen as an analog of control points of an electronic circuit and their non-linear properties can be used for biocorrection by EHF EMR irradiation. An important role here is played by the informational properties of the bioelectrical potential of the surface of the bio-object (the skin).

  One of the first described methods of tratment by EHF EMR is in the work of [Andreev, Beliy and Sit'ko]. The test subjects were 188 people, both healthy and ill in terms of medical diagnosis. It was established that the healthy subjects in the overwhelming majority of cases did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz with power density up to 10 mW/cm2. This same situation in many cases was observed also during exposure of ill subjects. However, irradiation of strictly defined parts of the body of ill subjects with EMR at fixed frequencies in the range of 45-65 GHz induced a sensory reaction in the region of an organ with marked disturbance. It became clear that the sensory reactions induced by exposure coincided with actual changes in physiological condition: the pulse rate decreased by 10-20 beats per minute, arterial pressure by 10-15 mm Hg, and the effective renal plasma clearance by 10-20%. Also noted were significant changes in the number of free radicals in the saliva, fluctuations in the acidity of the stomach cavity, etc. Some changes could even be observed visually: reddening of parts of the body far from the zone of exposure, tremors in separate groups of muscles, somnolence and sleep of a hypnotic nature. It was noticed that a positive (therapeutic) effect arose at frequencies which produced comfortable feelings in the patient: decreased pain, sensations of local warming, muscular relaxation, etc. At the same time, the functioning of the diseased organs effectively recovered.

  The constancy of frequency of many resonances during the time of chronic illnesses, the individuality of the frequency values for different organs, the narrowness of the resonant responses--all of this gives a basis for surmising the presence in living systems on the supramolecular level of discrete quantum states corresponding to the characteristic frequencies themselves.

  Igor Rodschtadt [I.V. Rodshtadt] has proposed a hypothesis on the nonspecific perception of EHF EMR by all parts of the skin. On the basis of the fact that EHF EMR can penetrate into the skin to a depth of up to 1 mm, it has been proposed that millimeter radiation has an effect on the microcirculatory system of the skin which lies at a depth of 150 microns. Further routes of influence of EHF EMR on the body have been considered, which lead to the secretion of biologically active substances (endogenous medicines). In our view, the hypothesis of a non-specific effect of EHF EMR is poorly effective to describe the effects of low-intensity radiation.

  [Bogdanov, Mel'nikov, Pisanko and Pyasetskiy] have proposed that the system of opioid peptides is one of the elements in the mechanism of mediation of the effect of EHF radiation on living objects. An important role in the humoral functioning of an organism is played by the regulatory peptides, synthesized and secreted into the internal environment of the body by endocrine glands, and by groups of cells of vaious tissues and organs. One important class of these bioactive substances are the opioid peptides, including endorphins and leu-enkaphalins, which function in the body of intercellular and inter-tissue regulators and participate in the formation of stress-limiting analgesic systems, as well as other systems of the body.

  The hypothesis was clinically confirmed that one of the important, possibly specific effects of EHF therapy is activation of the system of opioid peptides and foremost of all, enkephalins, which are connected with adaptogenic, anti-stress effects. The diffuse endocrine system obviously provides a morpho-functional substrate for inclusion of opioids, along with the neuro-endocrine system, in the answer regarding the effects of EHF fields. It is distinguished by the variety of hormone-producing cells located in mucous membranes and also in skin, where they act as a front line of quick response to the action of external agents, and even more so to EHF, which the body did not happen to encounter in the process of phylogeny and ontogeny.

  Under the influence of EHF EMR, macrophages and eosinophils are concentrated at the site of the immune response, functioning as regulatory cells. Enzymes secreted by the eosinophils inactivate histamine and other mediators [Radionov]. The immune system is directly connected with the peculiarities of hormonal exchange. Heightened levels of estrogen increase the basal secretion of prolactin and thymosin; which in turn stimulate maturation and functional activity of T and B lymphocytes, which have receptors for prolactin, which has been found to have a direct influence on cells of the immune system. It seems that bioenergetic processes are connected with the peculiarities of absorption of EHF radiation by certain skin, collagen and blood cells, immunocompetent cells, and many non-cellular compounds. EHF radiation causes bioresonant modification of only certain structural units of cells, which are able to absorb the given radiation with the given frequency. By changing the value of the membrane potential in various populations of immunocompetent cells, functional restoration of specific receptors for hormones, neuro-mediators and neuropeptides is accomplished, which can lead to various changes in neurons and glial cells, which in turn can produce reverse effects.

  Some researchers have proposed that initial reception may be accomplished by the epithelium of the crystalline lens of the eye, the venous network of the outer layers of skin, and the membranes of blood cells. The convective motion of water may turn out to be a primary mechanism of MMW perception by biosystems.

  At the symposium "Mechanisms of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation" held in Pushchino in 1987, a number of experimental data were presented, providing evidence of the effect of EMR on the conformational state of proteins and membranes [Golinskaya and Alekseev; Beliy, Kolbun and Lobarev]. The majority of the research was done in vitro, which allows to only a certain degree prediction of the possible effect of EMR on living organisms. Much attention was given to the problem of the effect of EMR on hormone-receptor and mediator-receptor interactions. In research on the effect of pulsed and modulated EMR in the decimeter range on receptor structures, it was shown that the sensitivity of the receptors had a non-linear relationship with the frequency of modulation of the EMR and depended on the duration and power of the radiation. It was revealed as new in principle that EMR induces the release of protein structures from membranes into solution. A considerable amount of research was dedicated to studying the biological activity of cortical neurons of the cerebral hemispheres (R.A. Chigmenkova, Ye.P. Khizhnyak and V.V. Tyazhelov in Pushchino; S.V.Zotov in Kiev). The high sensitivity of the hemo-immune system to EHF radiation (Bubnov and Kidarov in Leningrad) is connected with conformational changes in proteins of the hemo-immune system as a primary mechanism of the initial immune response to the influence of EMR. A report from L.I. Savchenko in Minsk showed a possible effect of decimeter waves on levels of hormones and mediators under conditions of altered hormonal background in a living organism. The necessity of combined evaluation of the functional condition of the immune system and concentrations of hormones under the influence of EMR was pointed out. It was shown the human body reacts to the effects of EMR at any intensity, therefore it is essential to look at gradations of reactions to exposure, which is very difficult in vitro. At the symposium it was recognized that it is necessary to study the dynamics of the after-effects of physical factors in order to avoid cumulative effects from EMR. The problem of applying EMF in medicine and biology is drawing great interest in the scientific and medical community. In Ukraine and Russia, symposiums and conferences are held regularly on this theme [Electromagnetic Fields in Medicine and Biology: Proc. of All-Russ. Sci. Conf.; Problems of Quantum Medicine in Ukraine and Abroad. Proceedings of the Second International Scientific-Practical Conference, Donetsk, 22-25 Oktober 1997].

  The neurodynamic activity of the brain is the most dynamic self-organized subsystem of the human body. It is therefore important to study the relationships of this activity to outside electromagnetic influence, in order to understand the structural-functional mechanisms of the transition of a biological system into a state of maximal stability among the set of quantum states. The human brain is continuously generating electrical waves, which occur in quasi-stationary rhythms of various frequencies. Of special note is the _-rhythm, with a frequency of 10 Hz, which is most pronounced in a state of peaceful alertness [Voropaev and Ostrovskiy]. The frequency- and time-dependency of the effects on the amplitude of _-rhythms confirm the suggestion of a systemic mechanism of interaction of external HF EMF with biosystems. The process of energetic correction of the system over time is accompanied by continuous change in the frequency of induced "resonances" with a time constant of a few minutes.

  One of the bioeffects observed when EMR is applied to biologically active points is change in the character of the EEG of the brain. Experimental data show that at certain frequencies, EHF EMR induces activation or depression of _-rhythms in the EEG. At the same time, sensory feelings also occur in the patient and a therapeutic effect occurs [Gerashchenko, Pisanko and Mus'kin]. A more stable and objective criterion is muscle tone in a hypnotic state. The frequencies at which the bioelectrical activity of the muscles change in deep stages of hypnosis reveal physiological activity. At PFD of less than 1 mW/cm2, these are 57-78 GHz, with a time of reaction of 10-20 seconds. Thus, one of the likely mechanisms of action of local EHF irradiation of the human body at physiologically active frequencies at non-thermal intensities lies in a change in tonus of the brain cortex. This affects the induction of nervous processes and weakens foci of pathological excitation in the nervous centers (for frequencies reducing residual bioelectrical activity).

  There is evidence that the influence of low-intensity EMR at physiologically active frequencies on some parts of the body changes the flow of natural sleep, in particular, inducing the phase of paradoxical (REM) sleep.

  The dynamics of electroencephalographic indices were studied during microwave resonance therapy (MRT) of cerebral arteriosclerosis patients [Kuz'menko]. MRT was done according to the established method, with EFD of up to 1 _W/cm2. The complexity of changes in the bioelectrical activity of the brain was shown, and in a number of cases, their multi-directionality during the process of irradiation. [Sit'ko, Shakhbazov, Rudko] described a non-traumatic, sensitive, quick method of determining the reaction of the human body to super-low-intensity EMR in the millimeter range. It was shown in cells of the buccal epithelium that the resonant effect of EHF EMR occurs at the level of the cell nucleus and cell morphology.

  [Podtaev and Fedorov] proposed that psychophysical reactions to EHF EMR occurring in humans are connected with the initiation of a spatial-temporal pattern of synchronous activity of the neurons of the somato-sensory system, which has bearing on the possible effect of EHF EMR on higher nervous activity.



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